Underexploited Nuts and Fruits of the Philippines
Research Professor, Institute of Plant Breeding
National Plant Genetic Resources Laboratory
University of Philippines
College, Laguna 4031, Philippines
Phone: +63 94-2298
Fax: +63 94-3438
ATCROS Reference: 11111.
Brown, W.H. 1943, 1954, 1957. Useful Plants of the Philippines. 3 Vol. Bureau of Printing, Philippines.
Coronel, R.E. 1983. Promising Fruits of the Philippines. Coll. Agric., UP Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.
Coronel, R.E. 1985. Agronomic aspects of fruit production in the Philippines. In: Proc. International Symposium on Fruit Production and Marketing. July 9-14, 1984. Pattaya, Thailand.
Coronel, R.E. 1996. Minor fruits of Southeast Asia. 1. The monkey jackfruit. Trop. Fruit News.
Coronel, R.E. 1996. The Underutilized Edible Fruits and Nuts of the Philippines. Unpublished.
Coronel, R.E. 1996. Minor fruits of Southeast Asia. 2. The kubili. Trop. Fruit News. 30(3):6.
Coronel, R.E. 1996. Minor fruits of Southeast Asia. 3. The galo. Trop. Fruit News. 30(11):9,11.
Coronel, R.E. 1996. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. 6. Pili nut. IPGRI, Rome, Italy.
Coronel, R.E. 1997. Minor fruits of Southeast Asia. 4. The bago. Trop. Fruit News. 31(5): 10-11.
Coronel, R. E. 1997. On-farm conservation of fruits and nuts. Trop. Fruit News. 31(4):8-9.
Coronel, R.E. 1998. Abiu: a promising fruit for the Philippines. Trop. Fruit News. 32(5): 6,9. Also in: Fruit News 1(1):3, 8. Also in PROSEA Newsletter No. 22, p.5.
Coronel, R.E. 2000. Grower’s guide on abiu production. Phil. Fruit Assoc., College, Laguna.
Coronel, R.E. 2000. Collection, propagation and conservation of indigenous fruits in the Philippines. In: International Symposium on Tropical and Subtropical Fruits. Nov. 26-Dec. 1. Queensland, Australia.
Coronel, R.E. 2000. Know your native fruits: The alupag, Fruit News 2(2):12.
Coronel, R.E. 2000. New fruit cultivars approved for registration. Fruit News 2(2):8.
Coronel, R.E. 2000. Abiu: varieties, propagation and culture. In: Farmers Techno-Forum and Consultation on Strawberry and Other Fruits March 14. BSU, La Trinidad, Benguet.
Coronel, R.E. 2000. Tropical Asian fruits for the world. In: Rare Fruit Clubs Conference. July 7-9. Homestead, Florida.
Coronel, R.E. 2000. The Philippine fruit industry. In: Rare Fruit Clubs Conference. July 7-9. Homestad, Florida.
Coronel, R.E. 2000. Tropical Fruits of Southeast Asia. In: Regular Monthly Meeting, Rare Fruit Council International. July 11. Miami, Florida.
<span id=“22"">Coronel, R.E. 2000. Tropical fruits in the Philippines. In: Regular Monthly Meeting, Sarasota Rare Fruit and Nut Society. July 12. Nokomis, Florida.
Coronel, R.E. 2000. Mass production and processing of bago. In: Tekno-talakayan sa Marinduque. August 23. MSC, Torrijos, Marinduque.
Coronel, R.E. 2000, Economic importance, botany, growth and development of mangosteen. In: Regional Training Course on Propagation of Mangosteen. September 26-27. PCARRD, Los Baños, Laguna.
Coronel, R.E. 2000. Update on varietal selection standards and newly registered fruit varieties.. In: 8th National Fruit Symposium. November 14-16. PCARRD, Los Baños, Laguna.
Coronel, R.E. 2000. Abiu: introducing, propagating and promoting a new fruit in the Philippines. In: Exotic Tropical Fruits Workshop. November 30-December 1. Queensland, Australia.
Coronel, R.E., R.C. Sotto, F.S. dela Cruz, Jr., R. C. Rabara and I.G. Banasihan. 2000. NPGRL-identified outstanding fruit and nut varieties for commercial planting. In: 8th National Fruit Symposium. November 14-16. PCARRD, Los Baños, Laguna.
Coronel, R.E., R.C. Sotto, F.S. dela Cruz, Jr., R.C. Rabara and I.G. Banasihan. 2000. Re-introducing the grumichama and pitanga: two promising tropical American fruits for the Philippine home gardens. In: 8th National Fruit Symposium. November 14-16. PCARRD, Los Baños, Laguna.
Coronel, R.E., R.C. Sotto, F.S. dela Cruz, Jr., R. C. Rabara and I.G. Banasihan, 2000. The people’s crucial role in the conservation and promotion of indigenous fruits and nuts. In: International Symposium on Tropical and Subtropical Fruits. November 26-29. Queensland, Australia.
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The Philippine has no less than 300 edible fruit and nuts. Some (e.g. pili, mabolo, kubili, galo) are indigenous in the country. Others (e.g. banana, mango) have been introduced during prehistoric times, while still others (e.g. pineapple, papaya) have been brought in during and after the colonization by Spain and the United States. Only a few (e.g. banana, pineapple, papaya, mango) are grown in large plantations. Many (e.g. jackfruit, tamarind) are mostly grown in backyards and are utilized in varying degrees. Still others (e.g. gumihan, halubagat) are not utilized at all and are in danger of being lost if not collected and conserved.
The Philippines, an archipelago of 7100 islands and islets in the Pacific Ocean, is one of the 10 countries of the Southeast Asian region. It is located at approximately 5-21o north of the equator. A tropical country, it has a generally warm and humid climate throughout the year. The country is the native home of many interesting fruits and nuts like the mabolo and pili nut. It also grows many exotic fruits from other tropical regions of the world, such as Asia (e.g. mango, rambutan), America (e.g. pineapple, papaya) and Africa (e.g. baobab, miracle fruit).
All in all, there are no less than 300 fruits and nuts in the Philippines today. Only a few are considered major fruits and are well utilized. About 40-50 more species are economically important but are not fully utilized. The rest are minor fruits and are in varying degrees of underutilization and neglect.
In terms of species conservation, the economically important fruits and nuts are relatively safe and are not likely to be lost, unless they are threatened by some devastating pests and diseases. The severely underutilized and neglected species are of great concern because, unless their uses can be successfully promoted and accepted by the people, they may be lost in the not so distant future.
THE PHILIPPINE FRUIT INDUSTRY
The three most important fruits are banana, pineapple and mango (Table 1). They contribute about 90% of the total volume of production. Citrus (notably calamondin, mandarin and pummelo) and papaya used to be very important fruit crops until they were severely hit by virus diseases; greening in citrus and ringspot in papaya.Table 1. Volume of production (tonnes)of fruits and nuts in the Philippines, 1998
|Fruit||Volume (tonnes)||% Share|
The other minor fruits are jackfruit, durian, rambutan, langsat, caimito, avocado, sapodilla, soursop, sugarapple, cashew, pili, mangosteen, carambola and canistel.
The fruit export in 1998 was 1,630,400 kg valued at US $463,566,000 (Table 2). Banana export, worth $ 235,791,000, was in fresh (92%) and processed (chips) forms. Major markets were Japan (62%), United Arab Emirates (9%), South Korea (8%) and Saudi Arabia (7%). The Cavendish is the major export banana variety.Table 2. Philippine fruit export, 1998.
|Pineapple, all forms||371,116||148,657|
|Mango, all forms||56,966||51,347|
|Others, all forms||38,016||27,432|
Fresh= 92%; processed-chips
Japan (62%), UAE (9%), S. Korea (8%), Saudi Arabia (7%)
Major export variety = 'Cavendish'
Fresh= 32%; processed = 68%
Japan (83%), S. Korea (11%) for fresh pineapple
US (65%), Netherlands (6%), Japan (6%) for processed pineapple
Major export variety = 'Smooth Cayenne'
Fresh = 80%; processed = dried, puree, juice
Hongkong (82%), Japan (16%)
Only export variety = 'Carabao'
Pineapple export, worth $ 148,657,000, was in fresh (32%) and processed (68%) forms. Major export markets were Japan (83%) and South Korea (11%) for fresh pineapple, and United States (65%), Netherlands (6%) and Japan (6%) for processed pineapple. The Smooth Cayenne is the major export pineapple variety.
Mango export, worth $ 51,347,000, was in fresh (80%) and processed (dried, puree, juice) forms. Major export markets were Hongkong (82) and Japan (16%). The Carabao is the only export mango variety.
In 1998, the Philippines imported 111,207 tonnes of fresh fruits worth $ 23,056,240 (Table 3). The major fruit imports included apple, orange, mandarin and grape. The Philippines, therefore, is a net fruit-exporting country.
Table 3. Philippine fresh fruit import, 1998.
|Fruit||Major Countries||Quantity (t)||Value (US $ 1,000)|
|Orange||China, USA, Singapore, Hongkong||19,500.88||3,907.80|
|Pear & Quince||China||3,799.27||32.49|
*Apricot, avocado, cherries, date, grapefruit, lemon, lime, lychee, melon, peach & nectarine, plum, pummelo, strawberry and watermelon.
DIVERSITY OF FRUITS AND NUTS
It has been estimated that there are more than 3000 edible fruits and nuts in the tropics of both hemispheres. In the Philippines, about 300 species, distributed among 163 genera and 60 families, have been recorded.
By geographic origin, 269 (79.8%) of the fruits and nuts in the Philippines are indigenous to tropical Asia and the Pacific, 60 (17.8%) from tropical America and 8 (2.4%) from tropical Africa.
Of the fruits and nuts from tropical Asia, about 152 (45%) are indigenous to the Philippines or have been introduced during prehistoric times that they are now considered "native" fruits. The 39 tropical Asian fruits of economic importance in the Philippines are shown in Table 4 together with their scientific names and status of cultivation.Table 4. Tropical Asian fruits of economic importance in the Philippines
|Common Name||Scientific Name||Status of Cultivation|
|1. Banana||Musa (edible)||/||/|
|2. Bignay||Antidesma bunius||o||/|
|3. Bilimbi||Averrhoa bilimbi||o||/|
|4. Binukaw||Garcinia binucao||o||/|
|5. Breadfruit||Artocarpus altilis||o||/|
|6. Calamondin||Citrofortunella microcarpa||/||/|
|7. Carambola||Averrhoa carambola||o||/|
|8. Dikay||Embelia philippinensis||o||/|
|9. Durian||Durio zibethinus||/||/|
|10. Galo||Anacolosa frutescens||o||/|
|11. Governorï¿½s plum||Flacourtia indica||o||/|
|12. Jackfruit||Artocarpus heterophyllus||o||/|
|13. Jambolan||Syzygium cumini||o||/|
|14. Java apple||Syzygium samarangense||o||/|
|15. Jujube (Indian)||Ziziphus mauritiana||o||/|
|16. Kalumpit||Terminalia microcarpa||o||/|
|17. Kamansi||Artocarpus camansi||o||/|
|18. Kubili||Cubilia cubili||o||/|
|19. Langsat||Lansium domesticum||/||/|
|20. Libas*||Spondias pinnata||o||/|
|21. Lime||Citrus aurantifolia||o||/|
|22. Lipote||Syzygium curranii||o||/|
|23. Longan||Dimocarpus longan||o||/|
|24. Lychee||Litchi chinensis||o||/|
|25. Mabolo||Diospyros blancoi||o||/|
|26. Malay apple||Syzygium malaccense||o||/|
|27. Malay gooseberry||Phyllanthus acidus||o||/|
|28. Mandarin||Citrus reticulata||/||/|
|29. Mango||Mangifera indica||/||/|
|30. Mangosteen||Garcinia mangostana||/||/|
|31. Marang||Artocarpus odoratissimus||o||/|
|32. Melinjo*||Gnetum gnemon||o||/|
|33. Paho||Mangifera altissima||o||/|
|34. Pili||Canarium ovatum||/||/|
|35. Pummelo||Citrus maxima||/||/|
|36. Rambutan||Nephelium lappaceum||/||/|
|37. Santol||Sandoricum koetjape||o||/|
|38. Sugar palm||Arenga pinnata||o||/|
|39. Tamarind||Tamarindus indica||o||/|
*Young leaves are commonly used as vegetable.
Banana, calamondin, durian, langsat, mandarin, mango and pummelo are grown in commercial orchards, while the rest are mainly grown in home gardens. Binukaw, dikay, galo, kamansi, kubili, lipote, mabolo, marang, paho, Philippine fig and pili are endemic fruits of the Philippines. There are many unutilized fruits that have economic potential (Table 5). Selection for better forms is, however, needed to promote the utilization of these neglected species.Table 5. Unutilized indigenous fruits with economic potential.
|Common Name||Scientific Name||Family|
|Alupag||Litchi chinensis ssp. philippinensis||Sapindaceae|
The 18 tropical American fruits of economic importance in the Philippines are given in Table 6 together with their scientific names and status of cultivation. Papaya and pineapple are grown in commercial orchards, while the others are grown for the most part in home gardens.Table 6. Tropical American fruits of economic importance in the Philippines
|Common Name||Scientific Name||Status of Cultivation|
|1. Abiu||Pouteria caimito||o||/|
|2. Atemoya||Annona cherimola x A. squamosa||o||/|
|3. Avocado||Persea americana||o||/|
|4. Berba||Rheedia edulis||o||/|
|5. Biriba||Rollinia mucosa||o||/|
|6. Caimito||Chrysophyllum cainito||o||/|
|7. Canistel||Pouteria campechiana||o||/|
|8. Cashew||Anacardium occidentale||o||/|
|9. Ciruela||Spondias purpurea||o||/|
|12. Guayamochil||Pithecellobium dulce||o||/|
|13. Mamey sapote||Pouteria sapota||o||/|
|14. Papaya||Carica papaya||/||/|
|15. Pineapple||Ananas comosus||/||/|
|16. Sapodilla||Manilkara zapota||o||/|
|17. Soursop||Annona muricata||o||/|
|18. Sugarapple||Annona squamosa||o||/|
The few fruits that came from tropical Africa include akee (Blighia sapida), baobab (Adansonia digitata), imbe (Garcinia livingstonei), miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) and voavanga (Vangueria madagascariensis).
ESTABLISHING A FRUIT SPECIES COLLECTION ORCHARD
- Collecting propagules
Mature fruits, seeds or scions are collected in places where the underexploited fruit species have been previously reported. Scions are collected only if compatible seedlings are available for grafting . Uses of the fruit species in the community are recorded. Table 7 shows some fruit and nut species collected in various parts of the Philippines.
- Evaluation of fruits
Collected fruits are measured for various characters. Pictures of whole fruit, fruit sections and seeds are also taken.
- Preparation of seeds for display
Collected seeds are cleaned, dried and put in bottles for display in the laboratory. Fruit species can be identified by its seeds.
Collected seeds are cleaned and germinated in a suitable medium. Days to, percent and pattern of germination are recorded. Pictures of young seedlings are also taken. Collected scions are grafted on available seedling rootstocks or existing trees in the nursery.
- Transferring of seedlings in polybags
Seedlings are planted in black polybags, properly labelled and cared for in a nursery.
- Planting in a species collection orchard
Representative seedlings and grafted plants of each underexploited fruit species are planted in a species collection orchard. The rest of the seedlings are used as rootstocks or given away.
|Name of Fruit||Scientific Name||Name of Province|
|Alupag||Litchi chinensis ssp.philippinensis||Cavite, Laguna, Zambales|
|Barobo||Diplodiscus paniculatus||Laguna, Marinduque|
|Batukanag||Aglaia clarkii Ilocos||Sur|
|Biasong||Citrus micrantha||Agusan Sur, Davao Sur|
|Binukaw||Garcinia binucao||Laguna, Marinduque|
|Hagis||Syzygium tripinnatum||Davao del Sur, Sorsogon|
|Lipote||Syzygium curranii||Camarines Sur|
|Marang||Artocarpus odoratissimus||Cotabato, Davao Sur|
|Melinjo||Gnetum gnemon||Batangas, Marinduque|
PROMOTING UTILIZATIONThere are several ways by which the underexploited fruits are being promoted.
- By conducting training courses dealing with conservation, propagation and utilization of minor fruit species.
- By participating in plant exhibits; displaying posters, conducting raffles and selling seedlings
- By participating in fruit symposia; giving lectures, displaying posters, conducting raffles and selling seedlings
- By guesting in radio and television programs
- By giving press releases in newspapers
- By conducting cookfests and taste tests
- By writing articles in magazines and newsletters
- By giving out seeds on request
- By registering new fruit varieties
- The Philippines is native home of many fruits and nuts like the mabolo and pili nut.
- It also grows many exotic fruits from other Asian regions (e.g. mango, rambutan), America (e.g. pineapple, papaya) and Africa (e.g. baobab, miracle fruit).
- Of about 300 fruits grown at present, only a few are major fruits and well utilized. About 40-50 more fruits are economically important but are not yet fully utilized. The rest are very minor fruits in varying degrees of underutilization and neglect.
- Banana, pineapple and mango, the three most important fruits, contribute 90% to total production volume.
- Citrus, (notably calamondin, mandarin and pummelo) and papaya used to be major commodities until badly hit by virus diseases (greening in citrus and ringspot in papaya).
- About 39 Asian fruits are of economic importance. Aside from banana and mango, calamondin, durian, langsat, mandarin, pummelo and rambutan are grown in commercial orchards. The rest are mostly grown in home gardens (e.g. jackfruit, langsat, pili, mangosteen).
- Some minor fruits are endemic species (e.g. binukaw, dikay, galo, kamansi, kubili, lipote, mabolo, marang, paho, pili).
- Many unutilized indigenous fruits have economic potential (e.g. alingaro, alupag, apali, baligang, barobo, biasong, hagis, halubagat, kariis, katmon).
- About 18 tropical American fruits are of economic importance. Papaya and pineapple are grown in commercial orchards. The others (e.g. caimito, avocado, sapodilla, soursop, sugarapple, cashew, canistel) are mainly grown in home gardens.
- The following steps are followed in establishing fruit species collection orchard: collecting propagules, fruit evaluation, propagation, establishing seedlings, planting in orchard and maintenance of collection.
- The following are ways to promote the conservation and utilization of minor fruits: conducting training courses, participating in plant exhibits and fruit symposia, guesting in radio and television shows, giving press releases, conducting cookfests and taste tests, writing and publishing articles, giving out seeds and seedlings and registering new fruit varieties.